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A Guide to Criminological Theory: Past to Present: Essential Readings


H1 Criminological Theory: Past to Present: Essential Readings --- --- H2 Introduction H3 What is criminological theory? H3 Why is criminological theory important? H3 How has criminological theory evolved over time? H2 Part I: The Classical School of Criminology H3 The origins and principles of the classical school H3 The contributions of Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham H3 The strengths and limitations of the classical school H2 Part II: The Positivist School of Criminology H3 The origins and principles of the positivist school H3 The contributions of Cesare Lombroso and Enrico Ferri H3 The strengths and limitations of the positivist school H2 Part III: The Chicago School of Criminology H3 The origins and principles of the Chicago school H3 The contributions of Robert Park, Ernest Burgess, and Clifford Shaw H3 The strengths and limitations of the Chicago school H2 Part IV: Anomie and Strain Theories of Crime H3 The origins and principles of anomie and strain theories H3 The contributions of Emile Durkheim, Robert Merton, and Robert Agnew H3 The strengths and limitations of anomie and strain theories H2 Part V: Social Learning Theories of Crime H3 The origins and principles of social learning theories H3 The contributions of Edwin Sutherland, Ronald Akers, and Albert Bandura H3 The strengths and limitations of social learning theories H2 Part VI: Social Control Theories of Crime H3 The origins and principles of social control theories H3 The contributions of Travis Hirschi, Michael Gottfredson, and John Laub H3 The strengths and limitations of social control theories H2 Part VII: Labeling and Critical Theories of Crime H3 The origins and principles of labeling and critical theories H3 The contributions of Howard Becker, Edwin Lemert, and Michel Foucault H3 The strengths and limitations of labeling and critical theories H2 Part VIII: Feminist and Gendered Theories of Crime H3 The origins and principles of feminist and gendered theories H3 The contributions of Carol Smart, Freda Adler, and Meda Chesney-Lind H3 The strengths and limitations of feminist and gendered theories H2 Part IX: Biosocial and Psychological Theories of Crime H3 The origins and principles of biosocial and psychological theories H3 The contributions of Hans Eysenck, Adrian Raine, and Terrie Moffitt H3 The strengths and limitations of biosocial and psychological theories Now that I have the outline ready, I will start writing the article based on it. Here is the first part: # Criminological Theory: Past to Present: Essential Readings ## Introduction What is criminological theory? Criminological theory is a branch of social science that seeks to explain why people commit crimes. Criminological theories are based on empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and ethical values. They aim to identify the causes, correlates, consequences, and prevention strategies for criminal behavior. Why is criminological theory important? Criminological theory is important for several reasons. First, it helps us understand the nature and extent of crime in society. By analyzing crime patterns, trends, types, locations, victims, offenders, and responses, criminological theory can reveal the social dynamics behind criminal phenomena. Second, it helps us evaluate the effectiveness of criminal justice policies and practices. By testing hypotheses, comparing outcomes, assessing impacts, and suggesting alternatives, criminological theory can inform policy makers, practitioners, researchers, educators, students, and the public about what works best to reduce crime. Third, it helps us challenge the status quo and promote social justice. By exposing the biases, inequalities, injustices, oppressions, and harms that are embedded in crime and criminal justice, criminological theory can inspire us to question, critique, resist, and transform the existing structures and systems that produce and reproduce crime. How has criminological theory evolved over time? Criminological theory has evolved over time in response to the changing social, historical, cultural, and intellectual contexts. Criminological theory can be divided into several schools or perspectives, each with its own assumptions, methods, concepts, and propositions. Some of the major schools of criminological theory are: - The classical school of criminology - The positivist school of criminology - The Chicago school of criminology - Anomie and strain theories of crime - Social learning theories of crime - Social control theories of crime - Labeling and critical theories of crime - Feminist and gendered theories of crime - Biosocial and psychological theories of crime In this article, we will review each of these schools of criminological theory, highlighting their origins, principles, contributions, strengths, and limitations. We will also discuss some of the essential readings that illustrate and exemplify each school of criminological theory. These readings are selected from the book Criminological Theory: Past to Present by Francis T. Cullen, Robert Agnew, and Pamela Wilcox, which is a comprehensive and authoritative reader for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in criminological theory.




Criminological Theory: Past To Present: Essential Readings


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